Tümülüs

Kral ve ailesi için, önce zemin üzerine inşa edilen mezar odası, sonra üstüne yığılan toprak katmanları veya taşlardan oluşturulan yapay tepe tipi anıt mezarlardır. Bu mezarlar dönemin mimarları tarafından inşa edilmişlerdir. Dış görüntüsü höyüğü andırmakta olan tümülüsler, yığma tepesi altında planlı bir mimariyi barındırır. Kral, kraliçe, prenses gibi statü yüksek isimlerin kullandıkları muhtelif eşyalar ve hediyeler  ceset ile birlikte konulmuştur. Tümülüsün yüksekliği ve mimari estetiği ölen kişinin statüsüne göre değişmektedir.  Boyu daha yüksek olanlar daha ihtişamlı krallar için yapılmıştır. Bu yapılar her zaman 9 metrenin katları olan 9, 18, 27, 36  metre gibi yükseltilere sahiptir.

Tümülüs ve höyükler birbirleri ile karşılaştırılsa-da birbirlerinden farklıdır, Höyükler tepe üzerindeki yerleşim yerinin terk edilip tahrip olduktan sonra üzerine yeni yerleşim yapılması, geçen zaman diliminde bu yapınında tahrip olduktan sonra üzerine tekrardan yenisinin yapılması sonucu oluşan tepelerdir. Tümülüs ise kral, kraliçe, prenses gibi statü yüksek kimselere yapılan mezarların üzeri toprakla doldurularak oluşturulmuş tepelerdir.

Bir tepenin tümülüs olup olmadığını nasıl anlarız ?

1- Yakınında dere ve benzeri su kaynağı varsa
2- Hakim bir tepe, vadiye bakan yamaç yüzeyinde yada ova benzeri düz yerde her taraftan rahat
gözüküyorsa.
3- Yakın mesafe içerisinde yerleşim yeri ya da kilise, manastır gibi ibadet edilen mekan varsa.
4- Yüzeyinde küp kırıkları, çanak, çömlek, kül, kiremit ve tuğla gibi malzemeler olmamalı.
5- Huni şeklinde tepe açısı yukarı doğru daralıyorsa.
Bu beş koşula uygun yapay tepecikler tümülüs yapılardır.

Kaynak

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