Tüm Jeofizik Yöntemler

Öncelikle Jeofizik Nedir Onu Anlayalım:  Jeofizik diğer adıyla yer fiziği olan cihazların çalışma mantığı fiziğin temel ilkelerinden yararlanılarak, su küre ve atmosferi de içerecek biçimde Yer’in araştırılmasını konu edinen bilim dalına verilen addır.

(GPR) Yeraltı Radarı: GPR yeraltı radarları  yüzeye yakın sığ araştırmalar için kullanılan yüksek frekanslı elektromanyetik (EM) jeofizik yöntemdir.Yer içine gönderilen yüksek frekanslı dalgaların yansıma ve kırılmalara uğrayarak yer içinden geri dönüşleri kaydedip belirli renklere ayırarak veriyi okunur hale getirmektedir.. son yıllarda sığ araştırmalarda sıklıkla kullanıldığını söyleyebiliriz. Bu yöntem 2B ve paralel 2B profil verilerinin 3B gösterimi detaylı ve hızlı bir şekilde yeraltı görüntüsünü vermektedir. Oda, tünel, mahzen,, mağara, ve metal tespitinde oldukça başarılıdır bu yöntemin bir avantajı-da çevreye zarar vermeden çok kolay uygulanabilir. Tüm jeofizik yöntemler içinde definecileri ilgilendiren yöntem budur.
Gravite:  Gravite prospeksiyonu, potansiyel teoriye dayalı bir jeofizik arama yöntemidir. Doğrudan yer çekimi ivmesi ölçülmesi teorisine dayanır. Yer çekimi ivmesindeki küçük değişimlerin yeryüzünde Gravimetreler ile ölçülmesi ve bu ölçümlerin değerlendirilmesi yer altında bulunan maden, tektonik ve jeolojik yapıların araştırılması Gravite Yönteminin esasını oluşturur. Yeraltı yapılarının yer çekimi özelliği Gravite kapsama alanındadır.

Manyetik: Yeraltı yapılarının manyetik özellikleri ile alakalıdır, Jeofiziğin en eski dallarından biridir.
Yerkürenin manyetik alanındaki değişimleri,  Yer manyetik alanının düşey bileşeni, yatay bileşenleri ya da alan vektörü ile eğim ve sapma açıları ölçülebilir. Uygulamalarda genellikle toplam manyetik alan ya da düşey bileşenleri ölçülmektedir. Manyetik geçirgenlik, maddelerin bir özelliğidir ve dış manyetik alanın neden olduğu manyetizasyon şiddetini belirler.
Sismoloji: Depremlerin özelliklerini ve yerin derinliklerini inceleyen yöntemdir. Ayrıca yeryüzünde yapılacak olan her tür sanatsal yapının hesaplarında kullanılacak pare-metrelerin belirlenmesinde ve yeraltı zenginliklerinin belirlenmesinde de kullanılmaktadır.

Sismik:   Sismik yöntemler  yeryüzünden yerküresine kadar inceleme yapabilen jeofizik mühendisliğinin en geniş dalıdır.Yeraltı yapılarının  hız değişimlerini inceler.
Elektrik: Yeraltı yapılarının elektrik iletkenlik özelliklerini inceler.
Elektromanyetik: Yeraltı yapılarının elektrik iletkenlik ve elektromanyetik özelliklerini inceler. yeraltı yapılarının fiziksel özelliği incelemesinde önemli rol oynar.
Jeomanyetizma: Uzaydaki ve Yeryüzündeki manyetik alanın  kökeni, manyetik kutupların oluşumu ve kutupların zaman içinde yer değiştirmesi, kayaçlarda görülen kalıcı mıknatıslanma, yerel ya da bölgesel manyetik sapmalar, Güneş ve gezegenler ile Yer arasındaki manyetik ilişkiler ve manyetik mineral yataklarını ve çeşitli jeolojik yapıların belirlenmesini inceler.
Paleomanyetizma: Geçmiş dönemlerdeki yer manyetik alanının değişimlerini inceler, özellikle  kayaçların eski manyetik alanlarını inceler. Mineraller bulundukları kayaçlara manyetik alanın yönünü ve yoğunluğunu belirlerler.  Tektonik plakaların geçmişteki lokasyonu ve yeryüzünün manyetik alanının geçmişteki durumu hakkında bilgi verir

Radyometrik ve jeotermik: Yeraltının radyoaktif ve sıcaklık özelliklerini inceler.
Kuyu logları: Sondaj kuyularında yapılan gravite, manyetik, radyometri, elektrik vb. jeofizik yöntemlerdir.
Yüzey Nükleer Manyetik Rezonans (SNMR): Atom çekirdeğinin (temel olarak çekirdekte bulunan protonun) manyetik özelliklerinden yararlanarak, yeraltının su içeriğini ve hidrolik geçirgenliğini derinliğin fonksiyonu olarak verebilen yeni bir yöntemdir.

Kaynak

61 thoughts on “Tüm Jeofizik Yöntemler

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