Oda Mezarların Ortaya Çıkışı

Taştan inşa edilen oda mezarların kökeni tam olarak bilinmemekle birlikte sanduka mezarların doğal gelişimi sonucu doğmuş olmalıdır. Yapısal olarak sanduka mezarlara benzer oluşları dikkat çekmektedir. Sanduka mezarların büyük çoğunluğu bireysel gömmeler için kullanılmıştır. Ancak oda mezarlardaki gibi toplu gömme yapılan, çok sayıda buluntu elen geçen sanduka mezarların varlığı, bu  gelişimi gösteren bir ipucu olmalıdır.

oda mezarların bir kısmı yerleşimin bitişiğindeki mezarlık alanında veya evlerin içinde ve büyük olasılıkla surların içinde bir yere inşa edilmiştir.  Kayaya oyulan oda mezarlar; yerleşim alanı dışında, mezar yapımına uygun doğal arazide karşımıza çıktığı için, bu grup içinde değerlendirilebilir. şu varki  oda mezarların konumları nasıl olursa olsun, ölü gömme adeti açısından büyük bir fark olmadığı, hepsinin benzer özelliklere sahip olduğu söylenebilir.

Oda mezarlar  yapısal özelliklerine göre iki ana gruba ayrılmaktadır:

A- Taştan İnşa Edilen Oda Mezarlar: Oldukça yaygın olarak karşımıza çıkan, taştan inşa edilen, tek odalı mezar yapılarının  ortak özelliği; duvarlarının çeşitli boy moloz veya blok taşlarla kuru duvar tekniği ile bazen çamur harç kullanılarak inşa edilmiş olmalarıdır. Duvarlar genellikle düz inşa edilmiştir.  An-cak oval şekilli Gre Virike ve Tilmen Höyük mezarlarının duvarları çatıya doğru daralarak içbükey örülmüştür.
Mezarlar şekil olarak dikdörtgen, oval veya yuvarlak planlıdır. Dikdörtgene yakın yamuk veya köşeleri yuvarlatılmış dikdörtgen planlı mezarlar da vardır. Bazı bölgelerde oval ve yuvarlak planlı oda mezarların varlığı bilinmektedir.
Mezarların yapımında bölgede doğal olarak bulunan taş cinsleri olan bazalt ve kireç taşı kullanılmıştır. Mezar odalarının boyutları birbirinden oldukça farklıdır. Uzun kenarları 5 metre ile 2  metre arasında ve kısa kenarları 1,25 metre ile 3,50 metre arasında değişmektedir. Tavandan tabana mezar odalarının ortalama yükseklikleri ise 2,40 metre ile 1,30 metre arasında değişmektedir. Mezar odasının tavandan tabana kadar olan yüksekliği ve kullanıldığı dönemdeki toprak yüzeyinde olup olmaması önemli olup işlevsel bir özelliğe işaret etmektedir.

Oda mezar girişleri

Oda mezarların en önemli yapısal özelliklerinden birisi de dar kenardan açılan kapı ve bir giriş mekanının olmasıdır. Mezarlarda yön birliği olmadığından girişlerinin yönünde de bir birlik bulunmamaktadır. Sadece bir insanın geçebileceği genişlikte olan kapı geçişleri tek veya iki adet levha şeklindeki taşların dikey konulması ile kapatılmıştır. Mezarlara girilip çıkıldığını gösteren tek veya çift kanatlı giriş kapıları dromos olarak da adlandırılan bir giriş mekanı ile bağlantılıdır. Mezar odasına girerken iki ya da üç sıra levha taşından yapılmış basamaklar, mezar odası ile geçişme-kanını ayırmaktadır.  Nadirende olsa yandan girişi olmayan  oda mezarı gibi örneklere, rastlamak mümkün bu odalara kapak taşı kaldırılarak üstten girilir. mezar kapakları genellikle 3 – 4 büyük levha taşı ile düz bir şekilde kapatılmıştır. bunlar bazen pişmiş  kiremit yada kerpiç kapaklar olabilir.   Mezarların tabanları genellikle sıkıştırılmış topraktır. Ancak Gediklide tabanı çeşitli boy çakıl taşları ile döşenen oda mezarlar da vardır.
B- Kayaya Oyulan Oda Mezarlar (kaya mezarları): ülkemizde oval, dikdörtgen biçimli, çok veya tek odalı kaya mezarlarına rastlamak mümkündür. Özellikle daha önceden kazılmış veya tesadüfen bulunan mezarlar oldukça fazla sayıdadır. Müze kurtarma kazılarında, kayaya oyulan oda mezar geleneğinin yaygın olduğunu gösteren örnekler açığa çıkartılmıştır.
Kaya mezar mimarisi konusunda net bilgi sahibi olmak mümkün değildir, mezarın yapımı kayanın yapısına paralel olarak tasarlanır. mesela örnek   kayaya oyulmuş, düzgün olmayan şekilli bir oda mezar tasarımı. Mezar 4 metre uzunluğunda, 2,5 metre genişliğinde, 1,30 m yüksekliğinde, girişi doğu yönde ve mevcut zeminden 1,9 m derinlikte bulunmuştur.  Yine başka bir örnek tam bir geometrik şekil vermeyen 2,60×1,35 metre ölçülerinde ve 1,05 m yükseklikte bir oda mezar kazılmıştır. Kayaya oyulan ve taştan inşa edilen oda mezarlar yapısal açıdan farklılık göstermesine karşın,  ölü gömme gelenekleri arasında fark yoktur.

Mezar Buluntuları:

Mezarlarda ele geçen buluntulara baktığımızda diğer mezar türlerine göre yığınlar halinde olduğu söylenebilir. Bunun en önemli nedeni oda mezarların uzun süre kullanılan bir mezar türü olması ve bireylerin aynı zamanda gömülmediği içindir. Bu durumu göz önünde tutarsak her gömülen birey için mezara konulanlar ile bu sayı giderek artarak bir yığın halini almış olmalıdır. Buluntuların bazılarının nadir bulunan eserler veya uzak bölgeler-den getirilmiş olan lüks ticari mallar  olması  gömülen bireylerin sosyal ve ekonomik durumu hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Mezarlarda çeşitli tipte metal silahlar, seramik kap-lar, heykeller ve süs eşyalarına oldukça fazla rastlanabilir. Buluntuların mezarların içinde belirli bir düzeni olmamakla beraber, genelde iskelet bir tarafta, buluntular diğer tarafta açığa çıkartılmıştır.

Kaynak

198 thoughts on “Oda Mezarların Ortaya Çıkışı

  1. Appreciating the time and effort you puut into your sikte and
    detailled information you offer. It’s awesome to cme across
    a blog everey once in a while that isn’t the same old rehashed information. Great read!
    I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google
    account.

  2. Hi there great blog! Does running a blog such as this take
    a great deal of work? I have absolutely no knowledge of
    programming but I had been hoping to start
    my own blog in the near future. Anyways, if you have any suggestions or techniques for new blog owners please share.
    I understand this is off subject but I simply needed to ask.

    Kudos!

  3. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your web site in internet explorer, could check this?

    IE still is the market leader and a huge component of other people will omit
    your excellent writing due to this problem.

  4. I’m gone to tell my little brother, that he should also pay a quick visit
    this blog on regular basis to take updated from newest information.

  5. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative.
    I’m going to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future.
    A lot of people will be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

  6. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague who was
    doing a little research on this. And he in fact ordered me
    breakfast because I discovered it for him… lol.
    So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending the time to discuss this issue
    here on your site.

  7. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as
    I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My blog
    site is in the very same area of interest as yours and my visitors would truly benefit from some of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Thank you!

  8. Just desire to say your article is as astonishing.

    The clarity in your post is just spectacular and i can assume you are an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.
    Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

  9. Greetings! Quick question that’s entirely off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My weblog looks weird when viewing from my iphone4. I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might be able to correct this problem. If you have any recommendations, please share. Thank you!

  10. [url=https://chloroquineav.com/]chloroquine cost canada[/url] [url=https://acyclovirmed.com/]acyclovir[/url] [url=https://abilify24.com/]abilify 1 mg[/url]

  11. [url=http://prozacssri.com/]prozac[/url] [url=http://augmentin875.com/]antibiotic augmentin[/url] [url=http://hydroxychloroquinemed.com/]buy hydroxychloroquine with no prescription[/url] [url=http://indocinsr.com/]indomethacin[/url] [url=http://plaquenilhcq.com/]plaquenil 200[/url] [url=http://atenololtab.com/]tenormin 50 mg[/url] [url=http://allopurinolsale.com/]buy allopurinol 300 mg online uk[/url]

  12. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if everyone else encountering issues with your website.
    It appears as though some of the text on your posts are running
    off the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me know if this is happening
    to them as well? This could be a issue with my internet browser because I’ve
    had this happen before. Many thanks

  13. [url=https://hydroxychloroquinep.com/]buy hydroxychloroquine[/url] [url=https://augmentin875.com/]augmentin 375mg[/url] [url=https://propranololmed.com/]propranolol 1[/url] [url=https://plaquenilhydroxychloroquine.com/]hydroxychloroquine tab 200mg[/url] [url=https://plaquenilhcq.com/]hydroxychloroquine buy uk[/url]

  14. I’ve been surfing online more than 2 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.

    It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made
    good content as you did, the web will be much more useful than ever before.

  15. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now
    each time a comment is added I get three emails with the same comment.

    Is there any way you can remove me from that service?

    Thanks a lot!

  16. [url=http://quineprox.com/]buy quineprox[/url] [url=http://chloroquinesulf.com/]chloroquine phosphate online[/url] [url=http://indocinsr.com/]buy generic indocin[/url] [url=http://doxycyclinenorx.com/]doxycycline hyclate[/url] [url=http://tretinoinc.com/]tretinoin 0.025 cream price in india[/url]

  17. [url=https://acyclovir3.com/]buy valacyclovir online[/url] [url=https://azithromycinotc.com/]where can you buy azithromycin[/url] [url=https://doxycyclinenorx.com/]doxycycline coupon[/url] [url=https://acyclovirzv.com/]aciclovir tablets[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquinemed.com/]plaquenil[/url] [url=https://viagrast.com/]viagra for sale usa[/url] [url=https://atenololtab.com/]atenolol 25 mg[/url]

  18. [url=https://chloroquine911.com/]chloroquine us[/url] [url=https://azithromycintab.com/]buy azithromycin 250 mg without prescription[/url] [url=https://zoloft360.com/]zoloft brand name cost[/url] [url=https://prednisonezt.com/]prednisone pill 20 mg[/url] [url=https://quineprox.com/]quineprox[/url] [url=https://acyclovirmed.com/]can you buy acyclovir online[/url] [url=https://doxycyclinemed.com/]100mg doxycycline[/url]

  19. Viagra Generika Rezeptfrei Kaufen [url=https://apcialisle.com/#]can i buy cialis without a prescription[/url] Purchasing Keflex Online Cialis Propecia Liver Saw Palmetto

  20. I am really impressed together with your writing talents and also
    with the layout to your blog. Is that this a paid topic or did you customize it yourself?
    Either way stay up the excellent quality writing,
    it’s uncommon to peer a nice weblog like this one today..

  21. [url=http://chloroquinetab.com/]chloroquine covid19[/url] [url=http://sildenafil4.com/]sildenafil citrate tablets[/url] [url=http://synthroidnow.com/]generic synthroid online[/url] [url=http://zithromax250.com/]how to get zithromax online[/url]

  22. [url=https://hydroxychloroquinesulf.com/]plaquenil cost without insurance[/url] [url=https://erythromycinmed.com/]erythromycin gel generic[/url] [url=https://backtrim.com/]bactrim 800 160[/url] [url=https://tadalissx.com/]tadalis 10[/url] [url=https://arralen.com/]riboquin[/url] [url=https://indocinsr.com/]indocin medication[/url] [url=https://quineprox.com/]quineprox[/url] [url=https://chloroquineav.com/]order chloroquine[/url] [url=https://azithromycinmed.com/]azithromycin australia[/url] [url=https://azithromycinotc.com/]buy azithromycin[/url]

  23. [url=https://prednisonezt.com/]prednisone 10mg tabs[/url] [url=https://zithromaxtab.com/]buy zithromax uk[/url] [url=https://chloroquine24.com/]buy chloroquine online uk[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquineplaquenil.com/]plaquenil 200 mg cost[/url] [url=https://quineprox.com/]buy hydroxychloroquine[/url] [url=https://wellbutrin3.com/]buy wellbutrin without prescription[/url] [url=https://tretinoinc.com/]tretinoin cream[/url] [url=https://synthroidrx.com/]synthroid generic[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquineotc.com/]hydroxychloroquine sulfate buy[/url] [url=https://chloroquinesulf.com/]chloroquine price uk[/url] [url=https://aralentc.com/]generic aralen[/url] [url=https://azithromycintab.com/]azithromycin buy over the counter uk[/url] [url=https://hydrochlorothiazide1.com/]hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg[/url] [url=https://acyclovirtab.com/]acivir[/url] [url=https://lipitor2020.com/]lipitor 40 mg[/url] [url=https://propranololmed.com/]propranolol hcl[/url] [url=https://azithromycinotc.com/]where to buy azithromycin[/url] [url=https://finasteridelab.com/]propecia price comparison[/url] [url=https://nolvadext.com/]nolvadex[/url] [url=https://nolvadex365.com/]buy nolvadex uk paypal[/url]

  24. What’s up, this weekend is good in support of me,
    for the reason that this occasion i am reading this
    fantastic informative post here at my residence.

  25. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this website.
    I’m hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts by you in the future as well.

    In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own website now ;
    )

  26. [url=http://zithromaxpak.com/]zithromax z-pak[/url] [url=http://flagyl24.com/]flagyl 200mg[/url] [url=http://hydroxychloroquineotc.com/]hydroxychloroquine sulfate buy[/url] [url=http://aralentc.com/]aralen phosphate chloroquine phosphate[/url] [url=http://aralenchloroquine.com/]buy aralen[/url] [url=http://chloroquine20.com/]chloroquine phosphate[/url] [url=http://hydroxychloroquinemed.com/]hydroxychloroquine sulfate with no prescription[/url]

  27. [url=http://chloroquinesulf.com/]buy chloroquine online[/url] [url=http://plaquenilhydroxychloroquine.com/]order plaquenil[/url] [url=http://medrol80.com/]medrol price[/url] [url=http://albenza200.com/]cost of albenza medication[/url] [url=http://zithromaxpak.com/]zithromax z-pak[/url] [url=http://chloroquineph.com/]chloroquine pills[/url] [url=http://advair365.us.com/]advair diskus price[/url] [url=http://zithromaxmed.com/]zithromax azithromycin[/url]

  28. [url=https://effexorer.com/]effexor online[/url] [url=https://chloroquine365.com/]aralen 500[/url] [url=https://quineproxhydroxychloroquine.com/]quineprox 200mg[/url] [url=https://flagyl24.com/]buy cheap flagyl online[/url]

  29. I don’t know if it’s just me or if everybody else experiencing issues with
    your blog. It appears as though some of the written text on your content are running off the screen. Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them as
    well? This might be a issue with my internet browser because I’ve had this
    happen before. Thanks

  30. [url=http://ventolininhaler.top/]ventolin 108[/url] [url=http://plaquenilmed.com/]hydroxychloroquine sulfate online[/url] [url=http://plaqueniltab.com/]buy plaquenil[/url] [url=http://citalopramhbr.com/]citalopram[/url] [url=http://chloroquine365.com/]chloroquine over the counter usa[/url] [url=http://zithromaxpak.com/]generic zithromax 500mg[/url]

  31. Alcohol Rehabilitation Treatment http://aaa-rehab.com Drug Rehab http://aaa-rehab.com Methadone Treatment Near Me
    http://aaa-rehab.com

  32. [url=https://chloroquinesale.com/]chloroquine 250mg tab[/url] [url=https://furosemide365.us.com/]ordering furosemide[/url] [url=https://arralen.com/]chloroquine 250[/url] [url=https://plaquenilhydroxychloroquine.com/]plaquenil 800 mg[/url] [url=https://furosemide2017.us.com/]furosemide cost comparison[/url] [url=https://chloroquine365.com/]aralen tablets[/url] [url=https://albenza200.com/]albenza price[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquineplaquenil.com/]plaquenil canada[/url]

  33. [url=https://effexorer.com/]order effexor online[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquinep.com/]hydroxychloroquine tablets buy online[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquinetabs.com/]hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet[/url] [url=https://plaquenilmed.com/]plaquenil generic[/url] [url=https://furosemide365.us.com/]furosemide lasix[/url] [url=https://chloroquine911.com/]chloroquine mexico[/url] [url=https://albenza200.com/]buy albenza from canada[/url] [url=https://benicarhctz.com/]cheap benicar online[/url] [url=https://zithromax250.com/]cheap zithromax[/url] [url=https://plaqueniltab.com/]plaquenil brand name[/url]

  34. [url=https://azithromycin20.com/]azithromycin cost[/url] [url=https://zithromaxtab.com/]where can i purchase zithromax[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquineplaquenil.com/]plaquenil best price[/url] [url=https://chloroquineph.com/]chloroquine phosphate generic[/url] [url=https://benicarhctz.com/]buy benicar[/url]

  35. Emergency Drug Rehab http://aaa-rehab.com Drug Rehab http://aaa-rehab.com Substance Abuse And Domestic Violence
    http://aaa-rehab.com

  36. Wow that was strange. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit
    my comment didn’t show up. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyhow,
    just wanted to say wonderful blog!

  37. Center For Substance Abuse Treatment http://aaa-rehab.com Alcohol Rehab Centers http://aaa-rehab.com Substance Abuse In Children
    http://aaa-rehab.com

  38. [url=https://hydroxychloroquineotc.com/]hydroxychloroquine 200 mg oral tablet[/url] [url=https://azithromycin20.com/]azithromycin 500[/url] [url=https://chloroquine20.com/]chloroquine phosphate tablet[/url]

  39. [url=https://benicarhctz.com/]benicar online[/url] [url=https://furosemide2017.us.com/]buy furosemide 20 mg[/url] [url=https://advair365.us.com/]generic advair diskus canada[/url] [url=https://arralen.com/]aralen order[/url] [url=https://prednisone365.us.com/]prednisone 20mg tablets[/url] [url=https://tamoxifencit.com/]tamoxifen pills price[/url] [url=https://medrol80.com/]medrol 16mg price[/url] [url=https://plaquenilmed.com/]plaquenil[/url] [url=https://hydroxychloroquinetabs.com/]plaquenil 100 mg[/url] [url=https://aralentc.com/]aralen price usa[/url]

  40. It is truly a great and useful piece of information. I am satisfied that you simply
    shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us informed like
    this. Thank you for sharing.

  41. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of.

    I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they
    plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top
    as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people can take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  42. [url=https://aralentab.com/]aralen 250 mg tablets[/url] [url=https://zithromaxpak.com/]generic zithromax azithromycin[/url] [url=https://sildenafilcitrate100mg.us.com/]sildenafil 100 mg[/url] [url=https://medrol80.com/]medrol pak[/url] [url=https://elavilamitriptyline.com/]buy elavil[/url] [url=https://chloroquine365.com/]generic chloroquine phosphate[/url] [url=https://azithromycintab.com/]cost of azithromycin 500 mg in india[/url] [url=https://flagyl24.com/]buy flagyl without a prescription[/url]

  43. Hello There. I discovered your blog the use of
    msn. This is a really smartly written article.
    I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read extra of
    your useful info. Thank you for the post. I will certainly comeback.

  44. Hello my family member! I wish to say that this article is amazing, great written and come with almost all significant infos.

    I’d like to peer extra posts like this .

  45. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to death at work so I decided
    to check out your site on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the info you provide here and can’t wait to take a
    look when I get home. I’m amazed at how fast your blog loaded on my
    phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, great site!

  46. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire
    someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to know where u got
    this from. thank you

  47. [url=http://prednisone365.us.com/]prednisone 10 mg[/url] [url=http://aralentc.com/]aralen over the counter[/url] [url=http://plaqueniltab.com/]plaquenil buy[/url] [url=http://albenza200.com/]albenza canada[/url] [url=http://cytotec100.com/]cytotec buy online[/url] [url=http://sildalistab.com/]sildalis 120 mg[/url] [url=http://ventolininhaler.top/]can you buy ventolin over the counter in australia[/url] [url=http://plaquenilhydroxychloroquine.com/]plaquenil[/url]

  48. Hello, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Ie, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some
    overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, excellent blog!

  49. Hey there! I could have sworn I’ve been to
    this site before but after checking through some
    of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  50. It’s fantastic that you are getting thoughts from
    this paragraph as well as from our discussion made here.

  51. I’m really loving the theme/design of your blog.
    Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility problems?
    A number of my blog readers have complained about my website not operating correctly
    in Explorer but looks great in Opera. Do you have any advice to help fix this problem?

  52. You can certainly see your expertise within the work you write.

    The world hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to mention how they believe.
    Always go after your heart.

  53. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or
    copyright infringement? My website has a lot of unique content I’ve either authored myself
    or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over
    the web without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help prevent
    content from being stolen? I’d really appreciate it.

  54. Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project
    in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!

  55. Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice even as you amend your site,
    how can i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.
    I were a little bit familiar of this your broadcast
    offered vivid clear idea

  56. usqwgh Check This Out [url=http://si1denafilfored.com/]generic viagra..is it legel[/url] viagra, revatio in oman pharmacy rmvxxs my sources visgrs generic viagra (sildenafil citrate)

  57. If you агe goіng fⲟr best contentѕ like me, just visiit thіs site
    all the tіme because іt gives quality ⅽontents, thаnks

  58. Wonderful items from yⲟu, mɑn. І’ve havе in mind youг stuff prior
    tߋ and y᧐u aгe just tߋo wonderful. Ӏ reaⅼly
    lijke wgat you’ve acquired right herе, гeally liҝe whаt yօu ɑre stating and the wаy whherein yoou assert іt.
    Yoᥙ’re making it enjoyable and you continue tо cre fⲟr to keeр it wise.
    Ι can not wait to learn fаr more from you.

    Thаt is aⅽtually ɑ tremendous website.

Bir cevap yazın

E-posta hesabınız yayımlanmayacak.