Küp Mezarlar – Pithos

Pithos: Antik çağlarda kullanılan küp şeklindeki büyük kaplara verilen isimdir. Boyutları ortalama bir insan kadar olan bu kaplar pithos gömü denilerek, mezar olarak kullanılmıştır, günümüzde ise küp mezar adını almıştır. Definecilerin bu ayrıntıyı bilmesinde fayda var.

Kremasyon, ölen kişinin cesedinin yaklaşık olarak 1.000 derece sıcaklıkta en az 1 saat yakılmasıdır, cesedin yakıldıktan sonra küllerin pithoslara (küp) koyularak gömülmesidir. Ölülerine bir mekan oluşturma, onları sonsuza taşıma isteğiyle, insanlar bazen onları yakarak küllerini saklamışlar, bazen bir küpün içine koyarak defnetmişler, bazen de fazla özelliği olmayan basit mezarlara gömmüşlerdir. Ama en yaygın kremasyon mezar tipi, küllerin urne içinde ayrı bir oyuğa yerleştirildiği çukur mezar tipidir. inhumasyon ise vücudunun bir bütün olarak gömülmesi şekline denir. Kremasyon ise, cesedin yakıldıktan sonra küllerin gömülmesi işlemine verilen addır.

Pithos ile beraber Amphora ve Diğer Kapların Mezarlarda Kullanımı

Pithos, amphora veya pişirme kapları bezemesiz ve kaba şekilde yapılmış kaplardır. Yetişkinler için büyük boyutlu pithoslar (küpler) veya birden fazla pithos kullanılırken, birçok nekropollerde bebekler sadece amphora veya mutfak kaplarının içerisine gömülmüştür.
Çocuk ve bebek ölümleri eskilerin en yüksek ölüm oranına sahip grubu oluşturmaktadır. Aristotelesin aktarımlarından öğrendiğimiz kadarıyla, bebeklerin büyük çoğunluğu doğumdan sonraki yedi gün içerisinde ölmekteydi. Bu saptamaya göre, bebek ölüm oranı %40 civarındaydı. Bu ölümlerden dolayı genellikle yeni doğan bebeklere adı, doğumdan yedi gün sonra verilirdi. Eski Yunan Dünyasındaki birçok nekropollerde, yan yatırılmış olarak ele geçen kapların ağız kısımları taş levha veya büyük bir vazo parçası ile kapatılmıştır. çocuk mezarlarında çok fazla değerli eşyaların olmayışı dikkat çeken diğer noktalardan bir tanesidir.  bu güne kadar definecilerin çocuk mezarından ciddi bir bulguya rastladığını görmedik.

Batı Anadolu‟da belirlenmiş nekropolis alanlarında da yetişkinler ve çocuklar için pithoslar kullanılırken, bebekler daha çok basit bir vazo içerisine gömülmüştür. Klazomenai, Pitane, Antandros, Tenedos ve Assos‟ta yetişkinler ve çocuklar için kullanılmış çok sayıda pithos gömü ortaya çıkmıştır. Sözü edilen nekropolislerde de açığa çıkan pithoslar, yan yatırılmakta ve ağızları geniş plaka taşlar ile örtülmektedir.

Kaynak

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